## 20801854 - PHYSICS II

The course provides methods for the study of elementary oscillatory phenomena, with particular reference to electromagnetic waves and optics; the student achieves a unitary vision of mechanical, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena.
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Programme

Electric field in vacuum
- Coulomb's law and electric charge.
- The conservative nature of electric fields. Electrostatic potential.
- The electrostatic dipole.
- Flux of a vector field. Gauss theorem. Divergence of a vector field.
- Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations.

Electric field and matter
- Conductors. Coulomb's theorem. Faraday cage.
- Capacitors. Energy density of the electrostatic field. Series and parallel connection.
- Electrostatics of dielectrics. Polarization charges. Permittivity.

Direct electric current
- Electric conduction. Current density.
- Continuity equation. Stationary electric currents. Solenoidal fields.
- Drift and thermal velocity in a conductor. Electric resistance and Ohm's law.
- Electromotive force and electric generators.
- Electrical circuits in dc. Kirchhoff's laws.

Magnetic field in vacuum
- Properties of the magnetostatic field. Lorentz force. Biot-Savart law. Ampère's law.
- Force on conductors in magnetic fields. Magnetic dipole.
- Motion of charges in electric and magnetic fields.
- Maxwell's equations in the stationary case.

Magnetic field and matter
- Magnetic properties of matter. Fundamental equations of magnetostatics.

Electromagnetic induction
- Faraday's experiments. Law of electromagnetic induction.
- Self and mutual induction. Magnetic energy.
- Alternating voltages and currents.
- Capacitors and inductances in alternating current circuits. RLC circuits. Resonance.
- Ampere-Maxwell equation.
- Laws of the electromagnetic field.

Propagation of the electromagnetic field
- Maxwell's equations in free space: propagating electromagnetic fields.
- Plane waves. Spherical waves. The energy conservation law.
- Poynting vector. Joule effect and Poynting vector. Momentum of the electromagnetic field. Radiation pressure.
- Reflection. Refraction. Geometrical optics. Optical instruments.
- Interference. Diffraction.

- Photoelectric effect.
- Early models of the atom. Spectral lines.
- Wave-particle duality (brief notes).

Core Documentation

P. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro, C. Voci, "Fisica Vol. II: Elettromagnetismo e Onde", terza edizione, Edises, Napoli

(*) Notes on selected arguments are also available on the course website

Reference Bibliography

For further studies the following is suggested: - R. P. Feynman, "La Fisica di Feynman", volumes 1 and 2 (freely available at http://feynmanlectures.info/)

Type of delivery of the course

Face-to-face teaching

Attendance

Attendance is optional but highly recommended.

Type of evaluation

The exam consists of a written test, which includes closed-ended questions, open-ended problems and open-ended theory questions, and of an oral interview.