## 20401530 - PHYSICS I

This course aims mainly at the following goals:
- to acquire a solid base knowledge of the point particle dynamics and of the mechanics of extended systems and to apply the laws of dynamics to complex systems like gases and fluids;
- to acquire the fundamentals of thermodynamics;
- to develop the ability to address and solve problems requiring the general theory to be applied to real situations.

Canali

teacher profile | teaching materials

Programme

Vectors and vector calculus: definition of a vector, its representation in cartesian and polar coordinates, carrier, properties, dot product, vector product, mixed product.

Point mass kinematics: position, velocity, scalar and vector acceleration of a point mass. Centripetal and tangential acceleration. Uniformly accelerated motion, uniform and not uniform circular motion, harmonic motion. Speed and acceleration in polar coordinates. Areolar speed.
Law of composition of speeds and accelerations; relative motion.

Mechanics of systems of points: the Galileo’s first principle of dynamics and Galileo’s relativity. Inertial reference frame. Second and third law of dynamics. Elastic forces, static and dynamic friction, viscosity; applications.
Transformation of coordinates and laws of composition of speeds and accelerations in general; acceleration of Coriolis.
Inertial reference frame and apparent forces: the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force.
Impulse of a force, momentum and their relationship. The moment of a force, the angular momentum and their relationship; central forces and pendulum.
The work of a force, kinetic energy and the theorem of kynetic energy. Conservative forces and potential energy, the law of conservation of mechanical energy.

Material point systems: the cardinal equations of mechanics. Center of mass, definition, properties and the theorem of the center of mass.
The conservation of the momentum and of the angular momentum in isolated systems. Energy of a point system, the Koenig theorem. Two-point systems: reduced mass.
Collisions between material points: elastic and anelastic collisions.

Mechanics of rigid body: translation and rotation, characteristics and vector representation; decomposition of motion in translation and rotation. Momentum, angular momentum and kinetic energy of a rigid body. Moment of inertia, Steiner's theorem.
Relationship between angular momentum and angular velocity of a rigid body, main axes of inertia. Analysis of the motion of a systems in rotation around a fixed axis, around an axis moving parallel to itself or with a fixed point; gyroscope and trowel.

Universal law of gravitation, potential energy and applications. Inertial mass and gravitational mass. Kepler's laws and their explanation using Newton laws. Motion of a planet.

Elasticity: Hooke's law, Young's module and Poisson coefficient. Volume elasticity, shape elasticity; relationship between elastic constants. Plastic deformations.

Mechanics of fluids: pressure, definition and properties. Fluids at rest: law of Stevin, of Pascal, of Archimedes.
Fluids in motion: mass storage in stationary flow, Bernoulli equation.
Laminar motion, viscosity and the law of flow rate.
Touch upon the turbulent motion and the Reynolds number. The motion of a body in a fluid.

Thermodynamics: temperature and its microscopic meaning, heat, definitons and heat transmission: conduction, convection, irradiation.
Transformations of a thermodynamic system, reversible and irreversible transformations: the work in a transformation.
First law of thermodynamics, internal energy.
Perfect gases and their transformations, real gases, solids and liquids. Transformation between phase states of matter.
Second law of thermodynamics: classic statements, thermal engines; the Carnot engine, the Carnot’s theorem and its generalization; entropy, definition, properties and calculation in transformations of a gas or of simple systems.
Kinetic theory of gases: internal energy and entropy of the perfect gas. Third law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic potentials: Helmotz free energy and Gibbs free enthalpy, applications. Equation of Clausius-Clapeyron

Waves: mathematical representation of waves. Transverse waves: waves in the strings; longitudinal waves: compression waves, the sound. Energy of the waves. Doppler effect.

Core Documentation

The recommended textbook is:
S. Focardi, I. Massa, A. Uguzzoni, M. Villa:
Fisica Generale: Meccanica e Termodinamica
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Another recommended option is the book:
C. Mencuccini e V. Silvestrini:
Fisica: Meccanica e Termodinamica
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Type of delivery of the course

Lectures on the theoretical aspect of the topics of the course, with the help of slide and internet only when useful. Exercises on the single topics of the course; the exercises are proposed and solved by the teacher. Tutoring: exercises are proposed to the students that have to solve them; the tutor gives only some help and suggestion; after sometime the tutor or one student show to all how to solve the exercise. In case the COVID-19 outbreak will continue, all the restrictions to the standard organisation of the course will be applied. Lectures, exercises and tutoring will be given, if necessary, remotely online to guarantee a fruitful interaction between the teacher and the students. The tools provided by the University in these respect will be used; they are already well in place and tested during the first lockdown period.

Type of evaluation

Written examination: four problems are proposed on the following topics: point body mechanics, many body mechanics, thermodynamics, mechanic of fluids or elasticity or waves; each problem is numerically quoted (10 the point body mechanics, 10 the many body mechanics, 7 the thermodynamics and 3 mechanics of fluids or waves or elasticity). Oral examination: query are proposed in order to evaluate the comprehension of the theoretical aspect of the discipline, of the correlation between different aspects, and the formal and mathematical aspect of the discipline. The grade is in thirtieths; the written work is positive only with at least a grade of 18 with a minimum of 12 on the mechanics and 6 on the other parts. The oral exam add or subtract, usually, up to 3 scores to the grade of the written work. In case the COVID-19 outbreak will continue, all the restrictions to the activities will be followed. Exams will be taken, if necessary, remotely online. The tools provided by the University in these respect will be used.

teacher profile | teaching materials

Programme

Vectors and vector calculus: definition of a vector, its representation in cartesian and polar coordinates, carrier, properties, dot product, vector product, mixed product.

Point mass kinematics: position, velocity, scalar and vector acceleration of a point mass. Centripetal and tangential acceleration. Uniformly accelerated motion, uniform and not uniform circular motion, harmonic motion. Speed and acceleration in polar coordinates. Areolar speed.
Law of composition of speeds and accelerations; relative motion.

Mechanics of systems of points: the Galileo’s first principle of dynamics and Galileo’s relativity. Inertial reference frame. Second and third law of dynamics. Elastic forces, static and dynamic friction, viscosity; applications.
Transformation of coordinates and laws of composition of speeds and accelerations in general; acceleration of Coriolis.
Inertial reference frame and apparent forces: the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force.
Impulse of a force, momentum and their relationship. The moment of a force, the angular momentum and their relationship; central forces and pendulum.
The work of a force, kinetic energy and the theorem of kynetic energy. Conservative forces and potential energy, the law of conservation of mechanical energy.

Material point systems: the cardinal equations of mechanics. Center of mass, definition, properties and the theorem of the center of mass.
The conservation of the momentum and of the angular momentum in isolated systems. Energy of a point system, the Koenig theorem. Two-point systems: reduced mass.
Collisions between material points: elastic and anelastic collisions.

Mechanics of rigid body: translation and rotation, characteristics and vector representation; decomposition of motion in translation and rotation. Momentum, angular momentum and kinetic energy of a rigid body. Moment of inertia, Steiner's theorem.
Relationship between angular momentum and angular velocity of a rigid body, main axes of inertia. Analysis of the motion of a systems in rotation around a fixed axis, around an axis moving parallel to itself or with a fixed point; gyroscope and trowel.

Universal law of gravitation, potential energy and applications. Inertial mass and gravitational mass. Kepler's laws and their explanation using Newton laws. Motion of a planet.

Elasticity: Hooke's law, Young's module and Poisson coefficient. Volume elasticity, shape elasticity; relationship between elastic constants. Plastic deformations.

Mechanics of fluids: pressure, definition and properties. Fluids at rest: law of Stevin, of Pascal, of Archimedes.
Fluids in motion: mass storage in stationary flow, Bernoulli equation.
Laminar motion, viscosity and the law of flow rate.
Touch upon the turbulent motion and the Reynolds number. The motion of a body in a fluid.

Thermodynamics: temperature and its microscopic meaning, heat, definitons and heat transmission: conduction, convection, irradiation.
Transformations of a thermodynamic system, reversible and irreversible transformations: the work in a transformation.
First law of thermodynamics, internal energy.
Perfect gases and their transformations, real gases, solids and liquids. Transformation between phase states of matter.
Second law of thermodynamics: classic statements, thermal engines; the Carnot engine, the Carnot’s theorem and its generalization; entropy, definition, properties and calculation in transformations of a gas or of simple systems.
Kinetic theory of gases: internal energy and entropy of the perfect gas. Third law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic potentials: Helmotz free energy and Gibbs free enthalpy, applications. Equation of Clausius-Clapeyron

Waves: mathematical representation of waves. Transverse waves: waves in the strings; longitudinal waves: compression waves, the sound. Energy of the waves. Doppler effect.

Core Documentation

S. Focardi, I. Massa, A. Uguzzoni, M. Villa:
Fisica Generale: Meccanica e Termodinamica
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

In alternativa si può consultare il testo:
C. Mencuccini e V. Silvestrini:
Fisica: Meccanica e Termodinamica
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Type of delivery of the course

Lectures on the theoretical aspect of the topics of the course, with the help of slide and internet only when useful. Exercises on the single topics of the course; the exercises are proposed and solved by the teacher. Tutoring: exercises are proposed to the students that have to solve them; the tutor gives only some help and suggestion; after sometime the tutor or one student show to all how to solve the exercise. In case the COVID-19 outbreak will continue, all the restrictions to the standard organisation of the course will be applied. Lectures, exercises and tutoring will be given, if necessary, remotely online to guarantee a fruitful interaction between the teacher and the students. The tools provided by the University in these respect will be used; they are already well in place and tested during the first lockdown period.

Type of evaluation

Written examination: four problems are proposed on the following topics: point body mechanics, many body mechanics, thermodynamics, mechanic of fluids or elasticity or waves; each problem is numerically quoted (10 the point body mechanics, 10 the many body mechanics, 7 the thermodynamics and 3 mechanics of fluids or waves or elasticity). Oral examination: query are proposed in order to evaluate the comprehension of the theoretical aspect of the discipline, of the correlation between different aspects, and the formal and mathematical aspect of the discipline. The grade is in thirtieths; the written work is positive only with at least a grade of 18 with a minimum of 12 on the mechanics and 6 on the other parts. The oral exam add or subtract, usually, up to 3 scores to the grade of the written work. In case the COVID-19 outbreak will continue, all the restrictions to the activities will be followed. Exams will be taken, if necessary, remotely online. The tools provided by the University in these respect will be used.

teacher profile | teaching materials

Programme

Vectors and vector calculus: definition of a vector, its representation in cartesian and polar coordinates, carrier, properties, dot product, vector product, mixed product.

Point mass kinematics: position, velocity, scalar and vector acceleration of a point mass. Centripetal and tangential acceleration. Uniformly accelerated motion, uniform and not uniform circular motion, harmonic motion. Speed and acceleration in polar coordinates. Areolar speed.
Law of composition of speeds and accelerations; relative motion.

Mechanics of systems of points: the Galileo’s first principle of dynamics and Galileo’s relativity. Inertial reference frame. Second and third law of dynamics. Elastic forces, static and dynamic friction, viscosity; applications.
Transformation of coordinates and laws of composition of speeds and accelerations in general; acceleration of Coriolis.
Inertial reference frame and apparent forces: the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force.
Impulse of a force, momentum and their relationship. The moment of a force, the angular momentum and their relationship; central forces and pendulum.
The work of a force, kinetic energy and the theorem of kynetic energy. Conservative forces and potential energy, the law of conservation of mechanical energy.

Material point systems: the cardinal equations of mechanics. Center of mass, definition, properties and the theorem of the center of mass.
The conservation of the momentum and of the angular momentum in isolated systems. Energy of a point system, the Koenig theorem. Two-point systems: reduced mass.
Collisions between material points: elastic and anelastic collisions.

Mechanics of rigid body: translation and rotation, characteristics and vector representation; decomposition of motion in translation and rotation. Momentum, angular momentum and kinetic energy of a rigid body. Moment of inertia, Steiner's theorem.
Relationship between angular momentum and angular velocity of a rigid body, main axes of inertia. Analysis of the motion of a systems in rotation around a fixed axis, around an axis moving parallel to itself or with a fixed point; gyroscope and trowel.

Universal law of gravitation, potential energy and applications. Inertial mass and gravitational mass. Kepler's laws and their explanation using Newton laws. Motion of a planet.

Elasticity: Hooke's law, Young's module and Poisson coefficient. Volume elasticity, shape elasticity; relationship between elastic constants. Plastic deformations.

Mechanics of fluids: pressure, definition and properties. Fluids at rest: law of Stevin, of Pascal, of Archimedes.
Fluids in motion: mass storage in stationary flow, Bernoulli equation.
Laminar motion, viscosity and the law of flow rate.
Touch upon the turbulent motion and the Reynolds number. The motion of a body in a fluid.

Thermodynamics: temperature and its microscopic meaning, heat, definitons and heat transmission: conduction, convection, irradiation.
Transformations of a thermodynamic system, reversible and irreversible transformations: the work in a transformation.
First law of thermodynamics, internal energy.
Perfect gases and their transformations, real gases, solids and liquids. Transformation between phase states of matter.
Second law of thermodynamics: classic statements, thermal engines; the Carnot engine, the Carnot’s theorem and its generalization; entropy, definition, properties and calculation in transformations of a gas or of simple systems.
Kinetic theory of gases: internal energy and entropy of the perfect gas. Third law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic potentials: Helmotz free energy and Gibbs free enthalpy, applications. Equation of Clausius-Clapeyron

Waves: mathematical representation of waves. Transverse waves: waves in the strings; longitudinal waves: compression waves, the sound. Energy of the waves. Doppler effect.

Core Documentation

The recommended textbook is:
S. Focardi, I. Massa, A. Uguzzoni, M. Villa:
Fisica Generale: Meccanica e Termodinamica
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Another recommended option is the book:
C. Mencuccini e V. Silvestrini:
Fisica: Meccanica e Termodinamica
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Type of delivery of the course

Lectures on the theoretical aspect of the topics of the course, with the help of slide and internet only when useful. Exercises on the single topics of the course; the exercises are proposed and solved by the teacher. Tutoring: exercises are proposed to the students that have to solve them; the tutor gives only some help and suggestion; after sometime the tutor or one student show to all how to solve the exercise. In case the COVID-19 outbreak will continue, all the restrictions to the standard organisation of the course will be applied. Lectures, exercises and tutoring will be given, if necessary, remotely online to guarantee a fruitful interaction between the teacher and the students. The tools provided by the University in these respect will be used; they are already well in place and tested during the first lockdown period.

Type of evaluation

Written examination: four problems are proposed on the following topics: point body mechanics, many body mechanics, thermodynamics, mechanic of fluids or elasticity or waves; each problem is numerically quoted (10 the point body mechanics, 10 the many body mechanics, 7 the thermodynamics and 3 mechanics of fluids or waves or elasticity). Oral examination: query are proposed in order to evaluate the comprehension of the theoretical aspect of the discipline, of the correlation between different aspects, and the formal and mathematical aspect of the discipline. The grade is in thirtieths; the written work is positive only with at least a grade of 18 with a minimum of 12 on the mechanics and 6 on the other parts. The oral exam add or subtract, usually, up to 3 scores to the grade of the written work. In case the COVID-19 outbreak will continue, all the restrictions to the activities will be followed. Exams will be taken, if necessary, remotely online. The tools provided by the University in these respect will be used.

teacher profile | teaching materials

Programme

Vectors and vector calculus: definition of a vector, its representation in cartesian and polar coordinates, carrier, properties, dot product, vector product, mixed product.

Point mass kinematics: position, velocity, scalar and vector acceleration of a point mass. Centripetal and tangential acceleration. Uniformly accelerated motion, uniform and not uniform circular motion, harmonic motion. Speed and acceleration in polar coordinates. Areolar speed.
Law of composition of speeds and accelerations; relative motion.

Mechanics of systems of points: the Galileo’s first principle of dynamics and Galileo’s relativity. Inertial reference frame. Second and third law of dynamics. Elastic forces, static and dynamic friction, viscosity; applications.
Transformation of coordinates and laws of composition of speeds and accelerations in general; acceleration of Coriolis.
Inertial reference frame and apparent forces: the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force.
Impulse of a force, momentum and their relationship. The moment of a force, the angular momentum and their relationship; central forces and pendulum.
The work of a force, kinetic energy and the theorem of kynetic energy. Conservative forces and potential energy, the law of conservation of mechanical energy.

Material point systems: the cardinal equations of mechanics. Center of mass, definition, properties and the theorem of the center of mass.
The conservation of the momentum and of the angular momentum in isolated systems. Energy of a point system, the Koenig theorem. Two-point systems: reduced mass.
Collisions between material points: elastic and anelastic collisions.

Mechanics of rigid body: translation and rotation, characteristics and vector representation; decomposition of motion in translation and rotation. Momentum, angular momentum and kinetic energy of a rigid body. Moment of inertia, Steiner's theorem.
Relationship between angular momentum and angular velocity of a rigid body, main axes of inertia. Analysis of the motion of a systems in rotation around a fixed axis, around an axis moving parallel to itself or with a fixed point; gyroscope and trowel.

Universal law of gravitation, potential energy and applications. Inertial mass and gravitational mass. Kepler's laws and their explanation using Newton laws. Motion of a planet.

Elasticity: Hooke's law, Young's module and Poisson coefficient. Volume elasticity, shape elasticity; relationship between elastic constants. Plastic deformations.

Mechanics of fluids: pressure, definition and properties. Fluids at rest: law of Stevin, of Pascal, of Archimedes.
Fluids in motion: mass storage in stationary flow, Bernoulli equation.
Laminar motion, viscosity and the law of flow rate.
Touch upon the turbulent motion and the Reynolds number. The motion of a body in a fluid.

Thermodynamics: temperature and its microscopic meaning, heat, definitons and heat transmission: conduction, convection, irradiation.
Transformations of a thermodynamic system, reversible and irreversible transformations: the work in a transformation.
First law of thermodynamics, internal energy.
Perfect gases and their transformations, real gases, solids and liquids. Transformation between phase states of matter.
Second law of thermodynamics: classic statements, thermal engines; the Carnot engine, the Carnot’s theorem and its generalization; entropy, definition, properties and calculation in transformations of a gas or of simple systems.
Kinetic theory of gases: internal energy and entropy of the perfect gas. Third law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic potentials: Helmotz free energy and Gibbs free enthalpy, applications. Equation of Clausius-Clapeyron

Waves: mathematical representation of waves. Transverse waves: waves in the strings; longitudinal waves: compression waves, the sound. Energy of the waves. Doppler effect.

Core Documentation

S. Focardi, I. Massa, A. Uguzzoni, M. Villa:
Fisica Generale: Meccanica e Termodinamica
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

In alternativa si può consultare il testo:
C. Mencuccini e V. Silvestrini:
Fisica: Meccanica e Termodinamica
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Type of delivery of the course

Lectures on the theoretical aspect of the topics of the course, with the help of slide and internet only when useful. Exercises on the single topics of the course; the exercises are proposed and solved by the teacher. Tutoring: exercises are proposed to the students that have to solve them; the tutor gives only some help and suggestion; after sometime the tutor or one student show to all how to solve the exercise. In case the COVID-19 outbreak will continue, all the restrictions to the standard organisation of the course will be applied. Lectures, exercises and tutoring will be given, if necessary, remotely online to guarantee a fruitful interaction between the teacher and the students. The tools provided by the University in these respect will be used; they are already well in place and tested during the first lockdown period.

Type of evaluation

Written examination: four problems are proposed on the following topics: point body mechanics, many body mechanics, thermodynamics, mechanic of fluids or elasticity or waves; each problem is numerically quoted (10 the point body mechanics, 10 the many body mechanics, 7 the thermodynamics and 3 mechanics of fluids or waves or elasticity). Oral examination: query are proposed in order to evaluate the comprehension of the theoretical aspect of the discipline, of the correlation between different aspects, and the formal and mathematical aspect of the discipline. The grade is in thirtieths; the written work is positive only with at least a grade of 18 with a minimum of 12 on the mechanics and 6 on the other parts. The oral exam add or subtract, usually, up to 3 scores to the grade of the written work. In case the COVID-19 outbreak will continue, all the restrictions to the activities will be followed. Exams will be taken, if necessary, remotely online. The tools provided by the University in these respect will be used.