The course has among its aims to provide the basic principles of wine and elements of technological organization of the winery and the cellar. In addition, thecourse aims to give students a knowledge framework of the national and worldproduction of wines and sparkling wines, and the tasting of the theory.
teacher profile | teaching materials


Historical background and general notions concerning the morphology and anatomy of vine.
Basic notions of vine physiology and main phenological phases (bleeding, budding, blossoming, fruit-setting, veraison, ripening). Chemical composition of the berry and modifications in the course of ripening.
Main indexes for determining the right harvest-time. Harvest and methods for picking.
Chemical composition of must. Main constituents.
The Transformation of must into wine: Fermentation
Outline of oenological microbiology. Oenological yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other strains of oenological interest. Basic elements of taxonomy, reproductive cycle, cell function and structure.
Alcoholic fermentation: glycolisis, from pyruvic acid to ehtyl alcohol, glyceropyruvic fermentation.
Malolactic fermentation. Lactic bacteria and their metabolism. Maloalcoholic fermentation.
Chemical composition of wine. Main constituents.
Monitoring fermentation processes during wine making. Fermentation stops, causes and prevention.
Main adjuvants and auxiliaries in oenology.
Vinification. White wine vinification, red wine vinification and special types of vinification.
White wine vinification: distinctive features. Quality criteria and oenological objectives.
Techniques for must extraction, skin maceration, cryomaceration, preventing must oxidation, fining and cleaning of the musts.
Managing the fermentation process (adding yeasts, monitoring temperatures and the kinetics of fermentation). Red wine vinification: an outline. Mechanical operations on grapes.
Managing alcoholic fermentation. Managing maceration and extractive techniques. Racking off and pressing. Managing malolactic fermentation.
Special vinifications: rosé wines, raisin wines, botrytized wines, wine under flor, dessert wines.
Sparkling wines: the classic method (or champenoise) and the Charmat (or Martinotti) method. Oenological processing technique and main features.
National and International Oenography
Introduction Description of the discipline from a geographic and ampelographic perspective.
The notion of terroir and its determinants: soil, climate, landscape, oenological culture and tradition of the place. The worlds of wine
Italian Oenography. The wine quality system in Italy. The quality brands: DOP (DOCG and DOC) e IGP.
In-depth analysis of viticultural areas, the pedoclimatic environment and the main designations of origin of all Italian regions.
European Oenography (an outline) France. The wine classification system. Main wine-making zones: Alzace, Bordeaux, Burgundy, Champagne, Loire Valley, Rhone Valley and minor viticultural areas.
Germany: a general outline of the quality system and of the main production areas.
The Iberian Peninsula: Spain and Portugal. A general outline of the quality system and of the main production areas.
Other European countries (an outline). Introduction to International Oenography. North America: United States and Canada. Main viticultural areas. South America: Chile and Argentina. Main production areas.
Australia and New Zealand: main viticultural areas. South Africa and developing countries.
Tasting Technique and Sensory Analysis (an outline)
Introduction. Basics of the tasting technique.
Physiology of the sensory organs and their involvement in the tasting technique.
Wine tasting methodology (view, taste and smell exam). Main sensory parameters for wine. Wine descriptors
Guided Wine Tasting

Core Documentation

- P.Cappelli, V. Vannucchi. Enologia, Zanichelli. 2014.
- M., Fregoni C., Ferrarini R., Spagnolli F., Chimica viticolo-enologica, Reda Edizioni, Torino, 2008.
- Enografia Italiana e Enografia Internazionale, a cura di Andrea Zanti, Edizioni FISAR Federazione Italiana Sommelier Albergatori Ristoratori. Sinalunga (SI), 2012.

For further study:
Ribereau-Gayon P., Doubordieu D., Doneche B., Lonvaud A., Trattato di enologia 1, Edagricole, Milano, 2003.
M. Fregoni. Viticoltura di qualità.Tecniche Nuove. 1998.