20410091 - MINERALOGIA E OTTICA MINERALOGICA

The course will provide student knowledge base of geological mineralogy and technical skills base of optical mineralogy

Canali

BELLATRECCIA FABIO

teacher profile | teaching materials

Programme

Course Program – 1st semester
Introduction. Definition of crystal and mineral. Mineralogy in earth science. Minerals as economic resource. History of mineralogy.
Crystal morphology. Symmetry and symmetry operations. The 32 points groups. Crystallographic axes. The 32 classes and seven systems of crystals. Axial ratios, Weiss parameters, Miller indices of crystal faces. Crystal forms and crystal habit. Twinning. Stereographic projection of crystal faces and forms.
Crystal structures. Translational symmetry: rows, plane and three-dimensional lattices. The 14 Bravais lattices. Symmetry operations with translation: screw axes and glide planes. The 230 space groups.
Crystal chemistry. Atoms and ions: structure, electron affinity, ionization energy, electronegativity, atomic and ionic radii. Chemical bonds and bonding. Packing, coordination, charge balance. Pauling's rules.
Energetics and mineral stability. Basic thermodynamic concepts. Crystallization and crystal growth. Solid solutions. Phase transitions and phase diagrams. Polymorphism. Twinning and crystal defects.
Chemical composition of minerals. Calculation of mineral formulas from chemical analyses. Graphical representation and interpretation of data.
Physical properties of minerals. Mechanical (hardness, cleavage, tenacity etc.), electrical, magnetic properties. Specific gravity. Color and optical effects (asterism, chatoyancy, play of colors, etc.).
Systematic mineralogy. Mineral classification. Systematic of non-silicate minerals. Systematic of silicate minerals.
Practical. Crystal morphology. Stereographic projections. Identification of minerals in hand specimen.

Course Program – 2nd semester.
Optical properties. Nature of light as an electromagnetic wave: wave nomenclature, wave front, wave normal, phase and interference. Polarizing microscope. Reflection, refraction, dispersion and polarization. Refractive indices and Snell's law. Birefringence. Uniaxial and biaxial indicatrix. Optical properties of minerals using polarized light: color, form and habit, cleavage, pleochroism, refractive index, relief, Becke line. Optical properties of minerals using crossed polars: interference colors, extinction, and elongation sign. Optical properties of minerals using convergent polarized light: uniaxial and biaxial interference figures (optic sign, 2v and birefringence). Optical properties of the most common rock forming minerals.
Laboratory. Introduction to the petrographic microscope. Relief and Becke line test. Color and pleochroism. Interference colors and birefringence estimation. Interference figures of uniaxial and biaxial minerals. Optical properties and identification of the principal rock forming minerals.


Core Documentation

Klein c. (2004). Mineralogia. Zanichelli.
Deer W.A., Howie R.A. & Zussman Jj. (1994). Introduzione ai minerali che costituiscono le rocce. Zanichelli.
Mottana A. (1989). Fondamenti di mineralogia geologica. Zanichelli.

And eventually also:
Dyar M.D. e Gunter M. (2008). Mineralogy and optical mineralogy. Mineralogical Society of America.
Putnis A. (1992). Introduction to Mineral Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
Bloss F.D. (1999). Optical crystallography. Mineralogical Society of America.


Reference Bibliography

Various material provided by the teacher according to the themes developed during the course.

Type of delivery of the course

Classroom lectures (56 hr) with practical exercises (12 hr) on the topics covered during the course. Laboratory of optical mineralogy with practical exercises of with recognition of the optical properties of the principal rock-forming minerals (48 hr).

Attendance

To be admitted to the exam, students must have attended at least 75% of the credits provided.

Type of evaluation

Written exam consisting of extensive questions, multiple-choice questions and practical exercises, practical test on the determination of the optical properties of a mineral and finally a short oral discussion on the exam results. For students attending the course and taking the exam in the session immediately following the course, they may take the exam in two exonerations; one on the topics covered in the first semester and the other only on the optical mineralogy laboratory. Rating expressed in thirtieths.

BELLATRECCIA FABIO

teacher profile | teaching materials

Programme

Course Program – 1st semester
Introduction. Definition of crystal and mineral. Mineralogy in earth science. Minerals as economic resource. History of mineralogy.
Crystal morphology. Symmetry and symmetry operations. The 32 points groups. Crystallographic axes. The 32 classes and seven systems of crystals. Axial ratios, Weiss parameters, Miller indices of crystal faces. Crystal forms and crystal habit. Twinning. Stereographic projection of crystal faces and forms.
Crystal structures. Translational symmetry: rows, plane and three-dimensional lattices. The 14 Bravais lattices. Symmetry operations with translation: screw axes and glide planes. The 230 space groups.
Crystal chemistry. Atoms and ions: structure, electron affinity, ionization energy, electronegativity, atomic and ionic radii. Chemical bonds and bonding. Packing, coordination, charge balance. Pauling's rules.
Energetics and mineral stability. Basic thermodynamic concepts. Crystallization and crystal growth. Solid solutions. Phase transitions and phase diagrams. Polymorphism. Twinning and crystal defects.
Chemical composition of minerals. Calculation of mineral formulas from chemical analyses. Graphical representation and interpretation of data.
Physical properties of minerals. Mechanical (hardness, cleavage, tenacity etc.), electrical, magnetic properties. Specific gravity. Color and optical effects (asterism, chatoyancy, play of colors, etc.).
Systematic mineralogy. Mineral classification. Systematic of non-silicate minerals. Systematic of silicate minerals.
Practical. Crystal morphology. Stereographic projections. Identification of minerals in hand specimen.

Course Program – 2nd semester.
Optical properties. Nature of light as an electromagnetic wave: wave nomenclature, wave front, wave normal, phase and interference. Polarizing microscope. Reflection, refraction, dispersion and polarization. Refractive indices and Snell's law. Birefringence. Uniaxial and biaxial indicatrix. Optical properties of minerals using polarized light: color, form and habit, cleavage, pleochroism, refractive index, relief, Becke line. Optical properties of minerals using crossed polars: interference colors, extinction, and elongation sign. Optical properties of minerals using convergent polarized light: uniaxial and biaxial interference figures (optic sign, 2v and birefringence). Optical properties of the most common rock forming minerals.
Laboratory. Introduction to the petrographic microscope. Relief and Becke line test. Color and pleochroism. Interference colors and birefringence estimation. Interference figures of uniaxial and biaxial minerals. Optical properties and identification of the principal rock forming minerals.


Core Documentation

Klein c. (2004). Mineralogia. Zanichelli.
Deer W.A., Howie R.A. & Zussman Jj. (1994). Introduzione ai minerali che costituiscono le rocce. Zanichelli.
Mottana A. (1989). Fondamenti di mineralogia geologica. Zanichelli.

And eventually also:
Dyar M.D. e Gunter M. (2008). Mineralogy and optical mineralogy. Mineralogical Society of America.
Putnis A. (1992). Introduction to Mineral Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
Bloss F.D. (1999). Optical crystallography. Mineralogical Society of America.


Reference Bibliography

Various material provided by the teacher according to the themes developed during the course.

Type of delivery of the course

Classroom lectures (56 hr) with practical exercises (12 hr) on the topics covered during the course. Laboratory of optical mineralogy with practical exercises of with recognition of the optical properties of the principal rock-forming minerals (48 hr).

Attendance

To be admitted to the exam, students must have attended at least 75% of the credits provided.

Type of evaluation

Written exam consisting of extensive questions, multiple-choice questions and practical exercises, practical test on the determination of the optical properties of a mineral and finally a short oral discussion on the exam results. For students attending the course and taking the exam in the session immediately following the course, they may take the exam in two exonerations; one on the topics covered in the first semester and the other only on the optical mineralogy laboratory. Rating expressed in thirtieths.

DELLA VENTURA GIANCARLO

teacher profile | teaching materials