The measurements and the correct analysis of the results are instrumental in every industrial or research activity.
The course assumes previous basic knowledge of the measurement science. Aim of the course is to give to the student the capability to apply and develop the previous knowledge to more advanced and complex situations. In particular, the course aims at fostering the capability of the student to develop measuring strategies, choice of instrumentation, uncertainty evaluation.
The student is guided toward the aim by the study and application of different methods for the measurement of the main electrical quantities, developing the capability to critically compare complexity and results that can be gained from different measuring strategies.
In the practical examples the course focusses on the measurement of electrical quantities in industrial and technological applications.
teacher profile | teaching materials


• Units and Standards of Electrical Measurements
1. Systems and units of measurement
2. Conservation and dissemination of electrical units
3. Standards for direct current
4. Samples of Capacity
5. Other Samples for Alternating Current
6. Primary electrical metrology

• Instrumentation
1. Electromechanical Instruments (Operating Principles, Construction Criteria, The Motion of the Instruments, Main Indicator Instruments, Zero Detectors, Special Instruments)
2. Electronic Instruments (Measurement Amplifiers, Analogue Electronic Instrumentation, Analogue-Digital Conversion, Numerical and Digital Instrumentation, Sampling Instrumentation)
3. Transducers
4. Divisors and derivatives
5. Measurement Transformers
6. Special Elements and Converters (Amperometric clamps, Hall effect converters, Rogowsky coil)
7. Practical Examples of Instrumentation (Analog and Digital Voltmeters, Analog and Digital Ammeters, Analog and Digital Wattmeters, Multimeters, Current Clamps, Digital Oscilloscopes, other support instruments present in the laboratory useful for laboratory experiences).

• Measurements on Circuits
1. Measurements on Direct Current Circuits (Current Measurements, Voltage Measurements, Power Measurements)
2. Measurements on single-phase AC circuits in low power and low frequency (Current Measurements, Voltage Measurements, Power Measurements, Impedance Measurements and Impedance meter)
3. Power measurements on single-phase alternating current circuits
4. General principles of measurements on three-phase circuits (measurements on three-phase three-wire systems, active power measurements on three-phase circuits, reactive power measurements, power factor measurements)
5. Energy measurements
6. Measurement Methods (Zero Methods, DC Bridge Methods, AC Bridge Methods, Potentiometric Methods)

• The quality of electricity (Power Quality)

• Specific problems of electrical systems
1. Sensors (velocimeters, accelerometers, vibration measurements, thermocouples, various temperature sensors, thermography, echometers for detecting faults on power lines, sensors for monitoring emissions)
2. Earth resistance measurements, electrical insulation measurements

• Laboratory Experiences (Theory and Practice)
A) Verification of Ohm's law
B) High Accuracy Continuous Measurements with Continuous Potentiometer
C) Volt-Amperometric method
D) Power measurement with the Volt-Amperometric method
E) Measurement of an impedance with the industrial method
F) Impedance measurement with the low frequency bridge method
G) Measurement of the characteristics of the filters
H) Earth resistance measurement

Core Documentation


Reference Bibliography

Fondamenti di Scienze delle Misure, Mario Savino Misure Elettriche, Giuseppe Zingales

Type of delivery of the course

The course includes lectures and laboratory lessons. For both, the preferred dispensing method is the face-to-face one (especially for the laboratory part). It is not excluded that, in situations due to exogenous causes of force majeure, it is possible to take advantage of distance learning mainly for the theoretical part of the course.

Type of evaluation

The exam will consist of two phases: 1) a first practical phase in which students will be asked to carry out a laboratory exercise among those announced in the programme; the experience will end with a written paper which will describe what was done in the practical test and which will be given a mark out of thirty. Once this phase has been completed, the second can be accessed. 2) An oral section in which one or more topics covered during the frontal lessons will be discussed. Even the elaborate fruit of the first phase could be the object of the oral discussion. This phase will also be evaluated with a mark out of thirty Once the two stages have been completed, the final grade will be the composition of the two grades that emerged in the evaluations of the first and second stage and will always be expressed out of thirty.