20410536 - CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETIC ELEMENTS

The course aims to provide basic knowledge on the morpho-functional organization of animal cells and tissues, with particular attention to mammals. In addition, the students will be provided with the theoretical and practical skills for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of both Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance of characters and of environmental mutagenesis. The course also aims to provide students with basic knowledge relating to the development and anatomy of vertebrates from an evolutionary point of view. The basic information for understanding the differentiation and morphogenesis processes will be provided. The students will acquire basic knowledge on animal cells and tissues, on formal genetics and environmental mutagenesis for understanding chromosomal aberrations and, finally, on the general principles of animal development, from gametogenesis to organ formation. The students will also acquire the theoretical and practical skills necessary for the recognition at the macro- and microscopic level of anatomical and embryonic structures of vertebrates.
teacher profile | teaching materials

Programme

The course is divided into 3 modules: (1) Cytology and Histology. Stem cells, differentiation and cell death; plasma membrane and membrane transport; DNA, nucleus, cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis; cellular organelles, proteins, cytoplasmic pathway, secretory pathway, vesicular trafficking; mitochondria and energy; cytoskeleton; cellular junctions; epithelial tissue; nerve tissue; muscle tissue; connective tissue; bone tissue; Blood; immunity. (2) Elements of Genetics. Basic elements of genetics: organization of chromatin, hetero and euchromatin, the gene, the allele. The chromosome: structure and function. Homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids. Cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Defects of cell division and its consequences. Mendel and the concept of gene. Mendel's laws, numerical exercises. Extension of Mendelian genetics (incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis). The chromosomal basis of inheritance, X-linked characters, crossing over and linkage maps, two-point cross, three-point cross, numerical exercises. Basic concepts of population genetics, numerical exercises. The molecular basis of heredity, semi-conservative DNA replication. Numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations. (3) Developmental Biology and Comparative Anatomy. (Developmental Biology). From a single cell to a multicellular organism: differentiation and morphogenesis. Sexual reproduction. Gametogenesis. Structural differences between the egg and the sperm. Fertilization: recognition of gametes at a distance and by contact. General information on the various stages of development: segmentation, gastrulation, organogenesis. Protostomes and deuterostomes. Early stages of development of echinoderms, cephalochordates, amphibians, birds, and mammals. Neurulation and the formation of encephalic vesicles. The mesoderm and the fate of the regions into which it is divided. The extraembryonic annexes: amnios, chorion, allantoid and yolk sac. The placenta. (Comparative Anatomy). Origin of vertebrates. The first agnates and the appearance of gnathostomes. Diversity and evolutionary success of aquatic vertebrates read based on their anatomy and reproductive biology. Origin of tetrapods and conquest of the emerged lands. Chondroichthyes, osteichthyes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Comparative anatomy of the organic systems of vertebrates: integumentary, respiratory, digestive and circulatory and uro-genital systems.

Core Documentation

1) Cytology and Histology: Miscellaneous authors. Biologia - Cellula e Tessuti, Colombo&Olmo eds, edi-ermes. / E. Ginelli, M. Malcovati - Molecole, Cellule e Organismi, EdiSES
2) Elements of Genetics: Campbell. Biologia e genetica, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky and Orr. Pearson
3) Developmental Biology: Menegola et al. "Manuale di Biologia dello Sviluppo Animale", EdiSES
4) Comparative anatomy: Stingo "Anatomia Comparata", Edi-Ermes


Reference Bibliography

Slides in PDF format will be provided for all lessons and exercises.

Type of delivery of the course

The course takes place with lessons in the classroom and with practical exercises in the laboratory and/or in the classroom.

Attendance

Class attendance is not mandatory.

Type of evaluation

The exam is WRITTEN. The test consists of a questionnaire organized in 3 weighted modules (30% Cytology + Histology, 30% Genetics, 30% Developmental Biology + Comparative Anatomy) with open-ended and/or multiple choice questions and/or true or false statement and/or association of words and/or text or images with omission of words on all the topics reported in the program. The time for the test is set on the difficulty and the number of questions. The evaluation is expressed in thirtieths. The modules can also be administered independently.

teacher profile | teaching materials

Programme

The course is divided into 3 modules:
(1) Cellular biology – Prof. Marco Colasanti
Stem cells, differentiation and cell death; plasma membrane and membrane transport; DNA, nucleus, cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis; cellular organelles, proteins, cytoplasmic pathway, secretory pathway, vesicular trafficking; mitochondria and energy; cytoskeleton; cellular junctions; elements of histology.
(2) Elements of Genetics – Prof. Antonella Sgura/Dr. Francesco Berardinelli
Basic elements of genetics: organization of chromatin, hetero and euchromatin, the gene, the allele. The chromosome: structure and function. Homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids. Cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Defects of cell division and its consequences. Mendel and the concept of gene. Mendel's laws, numerical exercises.
The chromosomal basis of inheritance, X-linked characters, numerical exercises(3) Developmental Biology/Comparative Anatomy – Dr. Valentina Cianfanelli
General principles of developmental biology and comparative anatomy. Classification, General characters and phylogenetic relationships among the main taxa of vertebrates. From a single cell to a multicellular organism: differentiation and morphogenesis. Sexual reproduction. Gametes. Fecundation: recognition of gametes at a distance and by contact. General information on the various stages of development: segmentation, gastrulation, organogenesis. Protostomes and deuterostomes. Comparing the stages of development in echinoderms, amphibians, birds, and mammals. Germ layers. Neurulation. Organogenesis. Comparative anatomy of the organic systems of vertebrates. Eco-Devo: environment and developmental biology.


Core Documentation

1) Cytology and Histology: (1) Miscellaneous authors. Biologia - Cellula e Tessuti, Colombo&Olmo eds, edi-ermes; (2) Molecole, Cellule e Organismi - Coordination by: E. Ginelli, M. Malcovati. EdiSES

2) Elements of Genetics: Campbell. Biologia e genetica, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky and Orr. Pearson

3) Developmental Biology: Menegola et al. "Manuale di Biologia dello Sviluppo Animale", EdiSES

4) Comparative anatomy: Giavini, Menegola, “Manuale di Anatomia Comparata”, EdiSES

Reference Bibliography

Slides in PDF format will be provided for all lessons and exercises.

Type of delivery of the course

The course consists of lessons in the classroom and with practical exercises in the laboratory and/or in the classroom.

Attendance

Class attendance is not mandatory.

Type of evaluation

The exam is WRITTEN. The test consists of 3 separated questionaires, related to the 3 modules (Cellular biology, Genetics, Developmental biology/Comparative anatomy; 3 CFU per module), all administered separately, on the same day. The questionaires cover all the topics reported in the program and are organised as follows. Cellular biology: multiple choice questions. Genetics: multiple choice questions and numerical exercises. Developmental biology/Comparative anatomy: multiple choice questions and images with omission of words. The final evaluation will be the average of the 3 modules. The time for the test is set on the difficulty and the number of questions. The evaluation is expressed in thirtieths.

teacher profile | teaching materials

Programme

Inglese
The course is divided into 3 modules:
(1) Cellular biology– Prof. Marco Colasanti
Stem cells, differentiation and cell death; plasma membrane and membrane transport; DNA, nucleus, cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis; cellular organelles, proteins, cytoplasmic pathway, secretory pathway, vesicular trafficking; mitochondria and energy; cytoskeleton; cellular junctions; elements of histology.
(2) Elements of Genetics – Prof. Antonella Sgura/Dr. Francesco Berardinelli
Basic elements of genetics: organization of chromatin, hetero and euchromatin, the gene, the allele. The chromosome: structure and function. Homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids. Cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Defects of cell division and its consequences. Mendel and the concept of gene. Mendel's laws, numerical exercises.The chromosomal basis of inheritance, X-linked characters, numerical exercises.
(3) Developmental Biology/Comparative Anatomy – Dr. Valentina Cianfanelli
General principles of developmental biology and comparative anatomy. Classification, General characters and phylogenetic relationships among the main taxa of vertebrates. From a single cell to a multicellular organism: differentiation and morphogenesis. Sexual reproduction. Gametes. Fecundation: recognition of gametes at a distance and by contact. General information on the various stages of development: segmentation, gastrulation, organogenesis. Protostomes and deuterostomes. Comparing the stages of development in echinoderms, amphibians, birds, and mammals. Germ layers. Neurulation. Organogenesis. Comparative anatomy of the organic systems of vertebrates. Eco-Devo: environment and developmental biology.


Core Documentation

1) Cytology and Histology: (1) Miscellaneous authors. Biologia - Cellula e Tessuti, Colombo&Olmo eds, edi-ermes; (2) Molecole, Cellule e Organismi - Coordination by: E. Ginelli, M. Malcovati. EdiSES
2) Elements of Genetics: Campbell. Biologia e genetica, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky and Orr. Pearson
3) Developmental Biology: Menegola et al. "Manuale di Biologia dello Sviluppo Animale", EdiSES
4) Comparative anatomy: Giavini, Menegola, “Manuale di Anatomia Comparata”, EdiSES


Reference Bibliography

Slides in PDF format will be provided for all lessons and exercises.

Type of delivery of the course

The course takes place with lessons in the classroom and with practical exercises in the laboratory and/or in the classroom.

Attendance

Class attendance is not mandatory.

Type of evaluation

The exam is WRITTEN. The test consists of 3 separated a questionaires, related to the 3 modules (Cellular biology, Genetics, Developmental biology/Comparative anatomy; 3 CFU per module), all administered separately, on the same day. The questionaires cover all the topics reported in the program and are organised as follows. Cellular biology: with open-ended and/or multiple choice questions. Genetics: multiple choice questions and numerical exercises. Developmental biology/Comparative anatomy: multiple choice questions and images with omission of words. and/or true or false statement and/or association of words and/or text or images with omission of words. The final evaluation will be the average of the 3 modules.The time for the test is set on the difficulty and the number of questions. The evaluation is expressed in thirtieths.