The second module of the course is devoted to the study of the civilizations of pre-Roman Italy (especially of the middle-Tyrrhenian region), in the period between the stabilization of the city structures (late 6th to early 5th century BC) and the end of the pre-Roman political-cultural identities, which merged into Roman Italy in the 1st century BC. The direct knowledge of some of the most relevant Etruscan archaeological monuments will be an integral part of the course; we will visit the National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia and some other museums and sites.
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The course will address the following main topics: the archaeological foundations of the study of the civilizations of pre-Roman Italy; the definition of an Etruscan culture and its correlations with other neighboring cultures; the cultural aspects of the Etruscan world and their articulations in space and time; Etruscan art and handicraft; the epigraphic and linguistic evidence; the political-cultural mosaic of Italy in the 1st millennium BC; the historical, social and cultural context of the political unification of the peninsula under Roman rule. The first module is devoted to some methodological issues and to the formative phases of this system, up to the emergence of formalized political-administrative and cultural structures, between the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 5th century BC.

Core Documentation

G. Bartoloni (ed.), Introduzione all’etruscologia, Hoepli, Milano, 2012 (and reprints): chapters 1, 3-6, 8-12.
M. Cristofani (ed.), Etruschi: una nuova immagine, Giunti, Firenze, 1985 (and reprints): pp. 33-72.

Reference Bibliography

Further literature will be suggested during the lessons.

Type of delivery of the course

The course includes lectures and visits to museums and archaeological sites.


Non-attending students are kindly requested to contact the teacher for any supplementary materials.

Type of evaluation

The exam will be an oral test on the topics covered in class and by reference texts.